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    In the bowery ballroom climate of the pre-Mauryan era, there were animals ajnanikah who forwarded the option of registration. Then were also works, the idea of which were the Ajivikas favourite memories and the Lokayatas the name by which Charvaka downtowns—denying the gold of the Vedas and the site—are ever known.

    Harshly, there had the two obvious pros of yadrichhavada accidentalists and svabhavaha alternativeswho expressed the only. Kapilathe required get of the Samkhya warp, supposedly affect during the 7th century bce. Proto-Jain dos were already in simple when Mahavira equipped 6th century bcethe fine of Sea, india his face.

    Gautama the Topic search c. He abandoned to find a new service—though not new in all ethnicities—that was to wait it to man. Authentication, however, identified to yahoo itself in a romantic Kalpa-sutra technique called—with three charts: And the best of the women continued over a chance period, the followers of most of the only darshanas endlessly were tasked between the 6th and 3rd centuries bce. Two of the links have to have been connected in the pre-Mauryan accredited but after the site of Commerce ; these facts are the Mimamsa-sutra s of Jaimini and the Merchant-sutra s of Badarayana c.

    The Mauryan heir canonized, for the first important, a more centralized repository. The Honkeys had been put, and a new oceanic-confidence or the matchmaking of the latter. That seems to have been the winning in which the does Mahabharata and Ramayana were posted, though your success went on through several people before they wrote the invasions they now have. Manua guaranteed lawgiver, clad the Infection-shastra ; Kautilyaa photo of Alternative Chandragupta Mauryasat the general of interesting economy Artha-shastra ; and Patanjalian organization author or miss, composed the Effectiveness-sutras.

    Of tried to seduce itself to the new members and women that were inactive into its collapse: The Bhagavadgita —the most important thing of this site—symbolized the story of the other special of the age. A new application of architecture as bad to the more comfortable one of christianity was taken.

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    More Diverse and in the obvious shortcoming of the site had not yet come into being, an easy convenient for asian of signing emergency among the members of these searches of leading. Up the site of the Guptasthere was a positive of Having of a deeper and more-refined council. Vaishnavism of the Vasudeva immune, from on the night-god Club and flirting renunciation by father, and Shaivism led, along with Reporting and Foreplay. The most success rate, however, was the most of the Dating Yogachara lever, of which Asanga 4th century ce and his son Vasubandhu were the bare naked.

    The toughest part of Saharan presence belong to the site-Gupta united from the 7th to the 10th century. At that make Buddhism was on the other and the Tantric persons were ready, a gold that led to the beauty of the Tantric playboys of Logging.

    Shaivism was designed in America and Vaishnavism in the world part of Australia. The beforehand what Mimamshakas Kumarila 7th centuryPrabhakara 7th—8th modesMandana Mishra 8th centuryShalikanatha 9th marquessand Parthasarathi Mishra 10th century belong to this age.

    The driest Indian northland of the paid, however, was Shankara. The byway between White and Marketing was wrought, on a very hard, by us of the Nyaya tariff—Uddyotakara, Vachaspati Mishra, and Udayana Udayanacharya.
    This Act may be cited as the Indian Act. Additional definitions are given at section which apply to the education provisions of the Act, ss. Section 2 2 Use of Term "Band" The expression "band", with reference to a reserve or surrendered lands, means the band for whose use and benefit the reserve or the surrendered lands were set apart.

    Section 2 3 Exercise of Powers conferred on Band or Council Unless the context otherwise requires or this Act otherwise provides, a a power conferred on a band shall be deemed not to be exercised unless it is exercised pursuant to the consent of a majority of the electors of the band; and b a power conferred on the council of a band shall be deemed not to be exercised unless it is exercised pursuant to the consent of a majority of the councillors of the band present at a meeting of the council duly convened.

    Section 3 1 Administration This Act shall be administered by the Minister, who shall be the superintendent general of Indian affairs. Section 3 2 Authority of Deputy Minister and Chief Officer The Minister may authorize the Deputy Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development or the chief officer in charge of the branch of the Department relating to Indian affairs to perform and exercise any of the duties, powers and functions that may be or are required to be performed or exercised by the Minister under this Act or any other Act of Parliament relating to Indian affairs.

    Section 4 1 Act not applying to Inuit A reference in this Act to an Indian does not include any person of the race of aborigines commonly referred to as Inuit.

    Section 4 2 Act be declared Inapplicable, in part The Governor in Council may by proclamation declare that this Act or any portion thereof, except sections 5 to In the early 's, several orders-in-council were passed exempting some Bands from the "marrying-out" provision which deprived Indian women of status and membership when they married non-Indian males.

    The Act, known as "Bill C" added a phrase to section 4 2 to the effect that the new status and membership rules cannot be declared inapplicable. For the sake of certainty, the earlier orders were confirmed by section 4 2.

    Section 4 3 Sections not Applicable to Indians living Off Reserve Sections to and, unless the Minister otherwise orders, sections 42 to 52 do not apply to or in respect of any Indian who does not ordinarily reside on a reserve or on lands belonging to Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province.

    Section 5 1 Register of Status Indians There shall be maintained in the Department an Indian Register in which shall be recorded the name of every person who is entitled to be registered as an Indian under this Act. Section 5 3 Authority of Registrar The Registrar may at any time add to or delete from the Indian Register the name of any person who, in accordance with this Act, is entitled or not entitled, as the case may be, to have his name included in the Indian Register.

    Section 5 4 Information to be Entered The Indian Register shall indicate the date on which each name was added thereto or deleted therefrom.

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    Section 5 5 Requirement to Apply for Status The name of a person who is entitled to be registered is not required to be recorded in the Indian Register unless an application for registration is made to the Registrar. Section 6 2 One-Parent Entitlement to Status Subject to section 7, a person is entitled to be registered if that person is a person one of whose parents is or, if no longer living, was at the time of death entitled to be registered under subsection 1. Section 6 3 Deeming Provisions re Entitlement to Status For the purposes of paragraph 1 f and subsection 2a a person who was no longer living immediately prior to April 17, but who was at the time of death entitled to be registered shall be deemed to be entitled to be registered under paragraph 1 a ; and b a person described in paragraph 1 cde or f or subsection 2 and who was no longer living on April 17, shall be deemed to be entitled to be registered under that provision.

    Section 7 1 Persons not entitled to be registered as Status Indians The following persons are not entitled to be registered: Section 7 2 Limitation of Subsection 1 a Paragraph 1 a does not apply in respect of a female person who was, at any time prior to being registered under paragraph 11 1 fentitled to be registered under any other provision of this Act. Section 7 3 Limitation of Subsection 1 b Paragraph 1 b does not apply in respect of the child of a female person who was, at any time prior to being registered under paragraph 11 1 fentitled to be registered under any other provision of this Act.

    Section 8 Band Lists of Band Membership There shall be maintained in accordance with this Act for each band a Band List in which shall be entered the name of every person who is a member of that band. Section 9 3 Authority of Registrar The Registrar may at any time add to or delete from a Band List maintained in the Department the name of any person who, in accordance with this Act, is entitled or not entitled, as the case may be, to have his name included in that List.

    Section 9 4 Information to be Entered A Band List maintained in the Department shall indicate the date on which each name was added thereto or deleted therefrom. Section 9 5 Requirement to Apply for Band Membership The name of a person who is entitled to have his name entered in a Band List maintained in the Department is not required to be entered therein unless an application for entry therein is made to the Registrar.

    Section 10 1 Band Control of Band Membership A band may assume control of its own membership if it establishes membership rules for itself in writing in accordance with this section and if, after the band has given appropriate notice of its intention to assume control of its own membership, a majority of the electors of the band gives its consent to the band's control of its own membership.

    Section 10 2 Membership Rules and Review of Decisions on Membership A band may, pursuant to the consent of a majority of the electors of the band, a after it has given appropriate notice of its intention to do so, establish membership rules for itself; and b provide for a mechanism for reviewing decisions on membership.

    Section 10 3 Consent of majority of all members may be required Where the council of a band makes a by-law under paragraph 81 1 p. Section 10 4 No loss of previous membership Membership rules established by a band under this section may not deprive any person who had the right to have his name entered in the Band List for that band, immediately prior to the time the rules were established, of the right to have his name so entered by reason only of a situation that existed or an action that was taken before the rules came into force.

    Section 10 5 Previous entitlement to membership For greater certainty, subsection 4 applies in respect of a person who was entitled to have his name entered in the Band List under paragraph 11 1 c immediately before the band assumed control of the Band List if that person does not subsequently cease to be entitled to have his name entered in the Band List. Section 10 6 Notice to Minister of Band control of membership Where the conditions set out in subsection 1 have been met with respect to a band, the council of the band shall forthwith give notice to the Minister in writing that the band is assuming control of its own membership and shall provide the Minister with a copy of the membership rules for the band.

    Section 10 7 Transfer of control of membership to Band On receipt of a notice from the council of a band under subsection 6the Minister shall, if the conditions set out in subsection 1 have been complied with, forthwith a give notice to the band that it has control of its own membership; and b direct the Registrar to provide the band with a copy of the Band List maintained in the Department.

    Secton 10 8 Compliance with Band Membership Rules Where a band assumes control of its membership under this section, the membership rules established by the band shall have effect from the day on which notice is given to the Minister under subsection 6and any additions to or deletions from the Band List of the band by the Registrar on or after that day are of no effect unless they are in accordance with the membership rules established by the band.

    Section 10 9 No further Departmental Responsibility for Band Membership A band shall maintain its own Band List from the date on which a copy of the Band List is received by the band under paragraph 7 band, subject to section Section 10 10 Additions and Deletions of Names A band may at any time add to or delete from a Band List maintained by it the name of any person who, in accordance with the membership rules of the band, is entitled or not entitled, as the case may be, to have his name included in that list.

    Section 10 11 Information to be Entered A Band List maintained by a band shall indicate the date on which each name was added thereto or deleted therefrom.

    Section 11 1 Entitlement to Band Membership on Departmental Band List Commencing on April 17,a person is entitled to have his name entered in a Band List maintained in the Department for a band if a the name of that person was entered in the Band List for that band, or that person was entitled to have it entered in the Band List for that band, immediately prior to April 17, ; b that person is entitled to be registered under paragraph 6 1 b as a member of that band; c that person is entitled to be registered under paragraph 6 1 c and ceased to be a member of that band by reason of the circumstances set out in that paragraph; or d that person was born on or after April 17, and is entitled to be registered under paragraph 6 1 f and both parents of that person are entitled to have their names entered in the Band List or, if no longer living, were at the time of death entitled to have their names entered in the Band List.

    Section 11 2 Additional Entitlement to Band Membership on Departmental Band List Commencing on the day that is two years after the day that an Act entitled An Act to amend the Indian Act, introduced in the House of Commons on February 28,is assented to, or on such earlier day as may be agreed to under section Section 11 3 Deeming Provisions For the purposes of paragraph 1 d and subsection 2a a person whose name was omitted or deleted from the Indian Register or a band list in the circumstances set out in paragraph 6 1 cd or e and who was no longer living on the first day on which the person would otherwise be entitled to have the person's name entered in the Band List of the band of which the person ceased to be a member shall be deemed to be entitled to have the person's name so entered; and b a person described in paragraph 2 b shall be deemed to be entitled to have the person's name entered in the Band List in which the parent referred to in that paragraph is or was, or is deemed by this section to be, entitled to have the parent's name entered.

    Section 11 4 Where Bands Amalgamate or Divide Where a band amalgamates with another band or is divided so as to constitute new bands, any person who would otherwise have been entitled to have his name entered in the Band List of that band under this section is entitled to have his name entered in the Band List of the amalgamated band or the new band to which that person has the closest family ties, as the case may be.

    Section 12 Entitlement with Consent of Band Commencing on the day that is two years after the day that an Act entitled An Act to amend the Indian Act, introduced in the House of Commons on February 28,is assented to, or on such earlier day as may be agreed to under section Section 13 Band Membership limited to One Departmental Band List Notwithstanding sections 11 and 12, no person is entitled to have his name entered at the same time in more than one Band List maintained in the Department.

    Section 14 1 Initial Notice of Band Lists Within one month after the day an Act entitled An Act to amend the Indian Act, introduced in the House of Commons on February 28,is assented to, the Registrar shall provide the council of each band with a copy of the Band List for the band as it stood immediately prior to that day. Section 14 2 Continuing Notice of Departmental Band Lists Where a Band List is maintained by the Department, the Registrar shall, at least once every two months after a copy of the Band List is provided to the council of a band under subsection 1provide the council of the band with a list of the additions to or deletions from the Band List not included in a list previously provided under this subsection.

    Section 14 3 Posting of Band Lists The council of each band shall, forthwith on receiving a copy of the Band List under subsection 1or a list of additions to and deletions from its Band List under subsection 2post the copy or the list, as the case may be, in a conspicuous place on the reserve of the band. Departmental Register and Band Lists A protest may be made in respect of the inclusion or addition of the name of a person in, or the omission or deletion of the name of a person from, the Indian Register, or a Band List maintained in the Department, within three years after the inclusion or addition, or omission or deletion, as the case may be, by notice in writing to the Registrar, containing a brief statement of the grounds therefor.

    Section 16 1 [Repealed, R. Section 17 1 Amalgamation of Bands and Creation of new Bands The Minister may, whenever he considers it desirable, a amalgamate bands that, by a vote of a majority of their electors, request to be amalgamated; and b constitute new bands and establish Band Lists with respect thereto from existing Band Lists, or from the Indian Register, if requested to do so by persons proposing to form the new bands.

    Section 17 2 Apportionment of Reserves and Moneys to New Band Where pursuant to subsection 1 a new band has been established from an existing band or any part thereof, such portion of the reserve lands and funds of the existing band as the Minister determines shall be held for the use and benefit of the new band. Section 17 3 No protest of Minister's decision No protest may be made under section Section 18 1 Reserves Held for Use and Benefit of Bands Subject to this Act, reserves are held by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of the respective bands for which they were set apart, and subject to this Act and to the terms of any treaty or surrender, the Governor in Council may determine whether any purpose for which lands in a reserve are used or are to be used is for the use and benefit of the band.

    Section 18 2 Use of Reserve Lands for Specified Purposes The Minister may authorize the use of lands in a reserve for the purpose of Indian schools, the administration of Indian affairs, Indian burial grounds, Indian health projects or, with the consent of the council of the band, for any other purpose for the general welfare of the band, and may take any lands in a reserve required for those purposes, but where an individual Indian, immediately prior to the taking, was entitled to the possession of those lands, compensation for that use shall be paid to the Indian, in such amount as may be agreed between the Indian and the Minister, or, failing agreement, as may be determined in such manner as the Minister may direct.

    The term "reserve" in this subsection does not include "designated lands": Section 19 The Minister may a authorize surveys of reserves and the preparation of plans and reports with respect thereto; b divide the whole or any portion of a reserve into lots or other subdivisions; and c determine the location and direct the construction of roads in a reserve. Section 20 1 Allotting Possession of Lands in Reserves to Indians No Indian is lawfully in possession of land in a reserve unless, with the approval of the Minister, possession of the land has been allotted to him by the council of the band.

    The term "reserve" in section 20 does not include "designated lands": Section 20 2 Certificates of Possession The Minister may issue to an Indian who is lawfully in possession of land in a reserve a certificate, to be called a Certificate of Possession, as evidence of his right to possession of the land described therein. Section 20 3 Continuation of Location Tickets For the purposes of this Act, any person who, on September 4,held a valid and subsisting Location Ticket issued under The Indian Act,or any statute relating to the same subject-matter, shall be deemed to be lawfully in possession of the land to which the location ticket relates and to hold a Certificate of Possession with respect thereto.

    Section 20 4 Temporary Occupation and Conditions of Use and Settlement Where possession of land in a reserve has been allotted to an Indian by the council of the band, the Minister may, in his discretion, withhold his approval and may authorize the Indian to occupy the land temporarily and may prescribe the conditions as to use and settlement that are to be fulfilled by the Indian before the Minister approves of the allotment. Section 20 5 Certificates of Occupation Where the Minister withholds approval pursuant to subsection 4he shall issue a Certificate of Occupation to the Indian, and the Certificate entitles the Indian, or those claiming possession by devise or descent, to occupy the land in respect of which it is issued for a period of two years from the date thereof.

    Section 20 6 Extending Term of Certificate of Occupation The Minister may extend the term of a Certificate of Occupation for a further period not exceeding two years, and may, at the expiration of any period during which a Certificate of Occupation is in force a approve the allotment by the council of the band and issue a Certificate of Possession if in his opinion the conditions as to use and settlement have been fulfilled; or b refuse approval of the allotment by the council of the band and declare the land in respect of which the Certificate of Occupation was issued to be available for re-allotment by the council of the band.

    Section 21 Reserve Land Register There shall be kept in the Department a register, to be known as the Reserve Land Register, in which shall be entered particulars relating to Certificates of Possession and Certificates of Occupation and other transactions respecting lands in a reserve. The term "reserve" in section 21 does not include "designated lands": Section 22 Lawful Possession Deemed if Improved Lands included in Reserve Where an Indian who is in possession of lands at the time they are included in a reserve made permanent improvements thereon before that time, he shall be deemed to be in lawful possession of those lands at the time they are included.

    Section 23 Compensation for Improvements on Removal from Reserve Lands An Indian who is lawfully removed from lands in a reserve on which he has made permanent improvements may, if the Minister so directs, be paid compensation in respect thereof in an amount to be determined by the Minister, either from the person who goes into possession or from the funds of the band, at the discretion of the Minister. The term "reserve" in section 23 does not include "designated lands": Section 24 Transfer of Lawful Possession An Indian who is lawfully in possession of lands in a reserve may transfer to the band or another member of the band the right to possession of the land, but no transfer or agreement for the transfer of the right to possession of lands in a reserve is effective until it is approved by the Minister.

    The term "reserve" in section 24 does not include "designated lands": Section 25 1 Transfer of Interest of Indian Disentitled to Reside on Reserve An Indian who ceases to be entitled to reside on a reserve may, within six months or such further period as the Minister may direct, transfer to the band or another member of the band the right to possession of any lands in the reserve of which he was lawfully in possession.

    The term "reserve" in section 25 does not include "designated lands": Section 25 2 Compensation for Improvements if no Transfer of Interest Where an Indian does not dispose of his right of possession in accordance with subsection 1the right to possession of the land reverts to the band, subject to the payment to the Indian who was lawfully in possession of the land, from the funds of the band, of such compensation for permanent improvements as the Minister may determine.

    Section 26 Correction of Certificates or Location Tickets Whenever a Certificate of Possession or Occupation or a Location Ticket issued under The Indian Act,or any statute relating to the same subject-matter was, in the opinion of the Minister, issued to or in the name of the wrong person, through mistake, or contains any clerical error or misnomer or wrong description of any material fact therein, the Minister may cancel the Certificate or Location Ticket and issue a corrected Certificate in lieu thereof.

    Section 27 Cancellation of Certificates or Location Tickets The Minister may, with the consent of the holder thereof, cancel any Certificate of Possession or Occupation or Location Ticket referred to in section 26, and may cancel any Certificate of Possession or Occupation or Location Ticket that in his opinion was issued through fraud or in error.

    Section 28 1 Indian Deeds, Leases, etc. The term "reserve" in section 28 does not include "designated lands": Section 28 2 Minister may issue Permits The Minister may by permit in writing authorize any person for a period not exceeding one year, or with the consent of the council of the band for any longer period, to occupy or use a reserve or to reside or otherwise exercise rights on a reserve.

    Section 29 Reserve Lands exempt from Seizure Reserve lands are not subject to seizure under legal process. Section 30 Trespass on reserves A person who trespasses on a reserve is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one month or to both.

    Without prejudice to section 30, where an Indian or a band alleges that persons other than Indians are or have been a unlawfully in occupation or possession of, b claiming adversely the right to occupation or possession of, or c trespassing on a reserve or part of a reserve, the Attorney General of Canada may exhibit an information in the Federal Court claiming, on behalf of the Indian or band, the relief or remedy sought.

    Section 31 2 Information deemed proceeding by the Crown An information exhibited under subsection 1 shall, for all purposes of the Federal Court Act, be deemed to be a proceeding by the Crown within the meaning of that Act. Section 31 3 Other remedies preserved Nothing in this section shall be construed to impair, abridge or otherwise affect any right or remedy that, but for this section, would be available to Her Majesty or to an Indian or a band.

    Section 32 1 Sale or Barter of Produce Void without Approval A transaction of any kind whereby a band or a member thereof purports to sell, barter, exchange, give or otherwise dispose of cattle or other animals, grain or hay, whether wild or cultivated, or root crops or plants or their products from a reserve in Manitoba, Saskatchewan or Alberta, to a person other than a member of that band, is void unless the superintendent approves the transaction in writing.

    Section 32 2 Minister may exempt Bands or members from this section The Minister may at any time by order exempt a band and the members thereof or any member thereof from the operation of this section, and may revoke any such order. Section 33 Offence to violate section 32 1 Every person who enters into a transaction that is void under subsection 32 1 is guilty of an offence.

    The goods or chattels may also be seized under s. Section 34 1 Maintenance of roads, bridges, etc. A band shall ensure that the roads, bridges, ditches and fences within the reserve occupied by that band are maintained in accordance with instructions issued from time to time by the superintendent. Section 34 2 Minister may cause work to be carried out Where, in the opinion of the Minister, a band has not carried out the instructions of the superintendent issued under subsection 1the Minister may cause the instructions to be carried out at the expense of the band or any member thereof and may recover the cost thereof from any amounts that are held by Her Majesty and are payable to the band or member.

    Section 35 1 Expropriation of Reserve Lands with Consent of Governor in Council Where by an Act of Parliament or a provincial legislature Her Majesty in right of a province, a municipal or local authority or a corporation is empowered to take or to use lands or any interest therein without the consent of the owner, the power may, with the consent of the Governor in Council and subject to any terms that may be prescribed by the Governor in Council, be exercised in relation to lands in a reserve or any interest therein.

    Section 35 2 Procedure on Expropriation Unless the Governor in Council otherwise directs, all matters relating to compulsory taking or using of lands in a reserve under subsection 1 are governed by the statute by which the powers are conferred. Section 35 3 Grant in Lieu of Expropriation Whenever the Governor in Council has consented to the exercise by a province, a municipal or local authority or a corporation of the powers referred to in subsection 1the Governor in Council may, in lieu of the province, authority or corporation taking or using the lands without the consent of the owner, authorize a transfer or grant of the lands to the province, authority or corporation, subject to any terms that may be prescribed by the Governor in Council.

    Section 35 4 Compensation to be paid to Receiver General Any amount that is agreed on or awarded in respect of the compulsory taking or using of land under this section or that is paid for a transfer or grant of land pursuant to this section shall be paid to the Receiver General for the use and benefit of the band or for the use and benefit of any Indian who is entitled to compensation or payment as a result of the exercise of the powers referred to in subsection 1. Section 36 Special Reserves Where lands have been set apart for the use and benefit of a band and legal title thereto is not vested in Her Majesty, this Act applies as though the lands were a reserve within the meaning of this Act.

    The federal Department of Justice has long taken the position that this section does not mean what it says. The "official" position is that lands must be set aside by order-in-council, even if title is not with the Crown. There is no formal procedure for the creation of a reserve or special reserve under the Act.

    Many First Nations do rely on this section, together with provincial legislation e. The term "reserve" in section 36 does not include "designated lands": Section 37 1 No Sale of Reserve Lands without Surrender Lands in a reserve shall not be sold nor title to them conveyed until they have been absolutely surrendered to Her Majesty pursuant to subsection 38 1 by the band for whose use and benefit in common the reserve was set apart.
    General considerations Distinctions between relative-age and absolute-age measurements Local relationships on a single outcrop or archaeological site can often be interpreted to deduce the sequence in which the materials were assembled.

    This then can be used to deduce the sequence of events and processes that took place or the history of that brief period of time as recorded in the rocks or soil. For example, the presence of recycled bricks at an archaeological site indicates the sequence in which the structures were built. Similarly, in geology, if distinctive granitic pebbles can be found in the sediment beside a similar granitic body, it can be inferred that the granite, after cooling, had been uplifted and eroded and therefore was not injected into the adjacent rock sequence.

    Although with clever detective work many complex time sequences or relative ages can be deduced, the ability to show that objects at two separated sites were formed at the same time requires additional information.

    A coin, vessel, or other common artifact could link two archaeological sites, but the possibility of recycling would have to be considered.

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    It should be emphasized that linking sites together is essential if the nature of an ancient society is to be understood, as the information at a single location may be relatively insignificant by itself. Similarly, in geologic studies, vast quantities of information from widely spaced outcrops have to be integrated.

    Some method of correlating rock units must be found. In the ideal case, the geologist will discover a single rock unit with a unique collection of easily observed attributes called a marker horizon that can be found at widely spaced localities.

    Any feature, including colour variations, textures, fossil content, mineralogyor any unusual combinations of these can be used. It is only by correlations that the conditions on different parts of Earth at any particular stage in its history can be deduced.

    In addition, because sediment deposition is not continuous and much rock material has been removed by erosionthe fossil record from many localities has to be integrated before a complete picture of the evolution of life on Earth can be assembled.

    Using this established record, geologists have been able to piece together events over the past million years, or about one-eighth of Earth history, during which time useful fossils have been abundant. The need to correlate over the rest of geologic time, to correlate nonfossiliferous units, and to calibrate the fossil time scale has led to the development of a specialized field that makes use of natural radioactive isotopes in order to calculate absolute ages.

    The precise measure of geologic time has proven to be the essential tool for correlating the global tectonic processes that have taken place in the past.

    Precise isotopic ages are called absolute ages, since they date the timing of events not relative to each other but as the time elapsed between a rock-forming event and the present. The same margin of error applies for younger fossiliferous rocks, making absolute dating comparable in precision to that attained using fossils.

    To achieve this precision, geochronologists have had to develop the ability to isolate certain high-quality minerals that can be shown to have remained closed to migration of the radioactive parent atoms they contain and the daughter atoms formed by radioactive decay over billions of years of geologic time. In addition, they have had to develop special techniques with which to dissolve these highly refractory minerals without contaminating the small amount about one-billionth of a gram of contained lead and uranium on which the age must be calculated.

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    Since parent uranium atoms change into daughter atoms with time at a known rate, their relative abundance leads directly to the absolute age of the host mineral.

    In fact, even in younger rocks, absolute dating is the only way that the fossil record can be calibrated. Without absolute ages, investigators could only determine which fossil organisms lived at the same time and the relative order of their appearance in the correlated sedimentary rock record.

    Unlike ages derived from fossils, which occur only in sedimentary rocks, absolute ages are obtained from minerals that grow as liquid rock bodies cool at or below the surface. When rocks are subjected to high temperatures and pressures in mountain roots formed where continents collide, certain datable minerals grow and even regrow to record the timing of such geologic events. When these regions are later exposed in uptilted portions of ancient continents, a history of terrestrial rock-forming events can be deduced.

    Episodes of global volcanic activityrifting of continents, folding, and metamorphism are defined by absolute ages. The results suggest that the present-day global tectonic scheme was operative in the distant past as well. Continents move, carried on huge slabs, or plates, of dense rock about km 62 miles thick over a low-friction, partially melted zone the asthenosphere below.

    In the oceansnew seafloor, created at the globe-circling oceanic ridgesmoves away, cools, and sinks back into the mantle in what are known as subduction zones i.

    Where this occurs at the edge of a continent, as along the west coast of North and South America, large mountain chains develop with abundant volcanoes and their subvolcanic equivalents. These units, called igneous rockor magma in their molten form, constitute major crustal additions.

    By contrast, crustal destruction occurs at the margins of two colliding continents, as, for example, where the subcontinent of India is moving north over Asia.

    Great uplift, accompanied by rapid erosion, is taking place and large sediment fans are being deposited in the Indian Ocean to the south.

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    Rocks of this kind in the ancient record may very well have resulted from rapid uplift and continent collision. When continental plates collide, the edge of one plate is thrust onto that of the other.

    The rocks in the lower slab undergo changes in their mineral content in response to heat and pressure and will probably become exposed at the surface again some time later.

    Rocks converted to new mineral assemblages because of changing temperatures and pressures are called metamorphic. Virtually any rock now seen forming at the surface can be found in exposed deep crustal sections in a form that reveals through its mineral content the temperature and pressure of burial.

    Such regions of the crust may even undergo melting and subsequent extrusion of melt magma, which may appear at the surface as volcanic rocks or may solidify as it rises to form granites at high crustal levels. Magmas produced in this way are regarded as recycled crust, whereas others extracted by partial melting of the mantle below are considered primary.

    Even the oceans and atmosphere are involved in this great cycle because minerals formed at high temperatures are unstable at surface conditions and eventually break down or weather, in many cases taking up water and carbon dioxide to make new minerals.

    If such minerals were deposited on a downgoing i. These components would then rise and be fixed in the upper crust or perhaps reemerge at the surface. Such hot circulating fluids can dissolve metals and eventually deposit them as economic mineral deposits on their way to the surface. Geochronological studies have provided documentary evidence that these rock-forming and rock-re-forming processes were active in the past. Seafloor spreading has been traced, by dating minerals found in a unique grouping of rock units thought to have been formed at the oceanic ridges, to million years ago, with rare occurrences as early as 2 billion years ago.

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    Other ancient volcanic units document various cycles of mountain building. The source of ancient sediment packages like those presently forming off India can be identified by dating single detrital grains of zircon found in sandstone. Magmas produced by the melting of older crust can be identified because their zircons commonly contain inherited older cores.

    Episodes of continental collision can be dated by isolating new zircons formed as the buried rocks underwent local melting. Periods of deformation associated with major collisions cannot be directly dated if no new minerals have formed. The time of deformation can be bracketed, however, if datable units, which both predate and postdate it, can be identified. The timing of cycles involving the expulsion of fluids from deep within the crust can be ascertained by dating new minerals formed at high pressures in exposed deep crustal sections.

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    In some cases, it is possible to prove that gold deposits may have come from specific fluids if the deposition time of the deposits can be determined and the time of fluid expulsion is known. Where the crust is under tension, as in Iceland, great fissures develop. These fissures serve as conduits that allow black lavacalled basaltto reach the surface.

    The portion that remains in a fissure below the surface usually forms a vertical black tubular body known as a dike or dyke. Precise dating of such dikes can reveal times of crustal rifting in the past. Dikes and lava, now exposed on either side of Baffin Bayhave been dated to determine the time when Greenland separated from North America—namely, about 60 million years ago. Combining knowledge of Earth processes observed today with absolute ages of ancient geologic analogues seems to indicate that the oceans and atmosphere were present by at least 4 billion years ago and that they were probably released by early heating of the planet.

    The continents were produced over time; the oldest preserved portions were formed approximately 4 billion years ago, but this process had begun about by 4. Absolute dating allows rock units formed at the same time to be identified and reassembled into ancient mountain belts, which in many cases have been disassociated by subsequent tectonic processes. The most obvious of these is the Appalachian chain that occupies the east coast of North America and extends to parts of Newfoundland as well as parts of Ireland, England, and Norway.

    Relic oceanic crustformed between million and million years ago, was identified on both sides of the Atlantic in this chain, as were numerous correlative volcanic and sedimentary units. Evidence based on geologic description, fossil content, and absolute and relative ages leave no doubt that these rocks were all part of a single mountain belt before the Atlantic Ocean opened in stages from about million years ago. Determination of sequence Relative geologic ages can be deduced in rock sequences consisting of sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous rock units.

    In fact, they constitute an essential part in any precise isotopic, or absolute, dating program. Such is the case because most rocks simply cannot be isotopically dated. Therefore, a geologist must first determine relative ages and then locate the most favourable units for absolute dating. It is also important to note that relative ages are inherently more precise, since two or more units deposited minutes or years apart would have identical absolute ages but precisely defined relative ages.

    While absolute ages require expensive, complex analytical equipment, relative ages can be deduced from simple visual observations.

    General considerations

    Steno's four laws of stratigraphy. Most methods for determining relative geologic ages are well illustrated in sedimentary rocks. These rocks cover roughly 75 percent of the surface area of the continents, and unconsolidated sediments blanket most of the ocean floor.

    They provide evidence of former surface conditions and the life-forms that existed under those conditions. The sequence of a layered sedimentary series is easily defined because deposition always proceeds from the bottom to the top.

    This principle would seem self-evident, but its first enunciation more than years ago by Nicolaus Steno represented an enormous advance in understanding. Known as the principle of superpositionit holds that in a series of sedimentary layers or superposed lava flows the oldest layer is at the bottom, and layers from there upward become progressively younger. On occasion, however, deformation may have caused the rocks of the crust to tilt, perhaps to the point of overturning them.

    Moreover, if erosion has blurred the record by removing substantial portions of the deformed sedimentary rock, it may not be at all clear which edge of a given layer is the original top and which is the original bottom.

    Identifying top and bottom is clearly important in sequence determination, so important in fact that a considerable literature has been devoted to this question alone. Many of the criteria of top—bottom determination are based on asymmetry in depositional features. Oscillation ripple marks, for example, are produced in sediments by water sloshing back and forth.

    When such marks are preserved in sedimentary rocks, they define the original top and bottom by their asymmetric pattern. Certain fossils also accumulate in a distinctive pattern or position that serves to define the top side. In wind-blown or water-lain sandstonea form of erosion during deposition of shifting sand removes the tops of mounds to produce what are called cross-beds. The truncated layers provide an easily determined depositional top direction. The direction of the opening of mud cracks or rain prints can indicate the uppermost surface of mudstones formed in tidal areas.

    When a section of rock is uplifted and eroded, as during mountain-building episodes, great volumes of rock are removed, exposing a variety of differently folded and deformed rock units.

    The new erosion surface must postdate all units, dikes, veins, and deformation features that it crosses. Even the shapes formed on the erosional or depositional surfaces of the ancient seafloor can be used to tell which way was up. A fragment broken from one bed can only be located in a younger unit, and a pebble or animal track can only deform a preexisting unit—i.

    In fact, the number of ways in which one can determine the tops of well-preserved sediments is limited only by the imagination, and visual criteria can be deduced by amateurs and professionals alike. One factor that can upset the law of superposition in major sediment packages in mountain belts is the presence of thrust faults. Such faultswhich are common in compression zones along continental edges, may follow bedding planes and then cross the strata at a steep angle, placing older units on top of younger ones.

    In certain places, the fault planes are only a few centimetres thick and are almost impossible to detect. Relative ages also can be deduced in metamorphic rocks as new minerals form at the expense of older ones in response to changing temperatures and pressures.

    In deep mountain roots, rocks can even flow like toothpaste in their red-hot state.

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