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    Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle.

    Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here - including the listed dating ranges - are noted. Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted.

    Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site. If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition.

    As an alternative, one can do a search of this website. Figured Flasks Figured flasks is a generic name for the large class of liquor flasks primarily produced between and Due to their esthetic and decorative nature, these flasks were infrequently discarded unless broken so many survived to the present day. Figured flasks also include c alabash bottles example belowwhich are covered separately here because of their distinctive shape, and some flasks that fit the form description but are just embossed with lettering, i.

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    Unlike most other types of liquor bottles which are generally more common without embossing, figured flasks are by definition embossed since the embossed motifs and molded designs are what defines them as figured flasks, though many shapes are also unique to this group e.

    Unembossed flasks with shapes similar to some of the later s primarily figured flasks are considered generically in the "Flask not considered figured " category. The figured flasks described here represent a small cross-section of the hundreds of different types made during their heyday. These type items are occasionally found on historic archaeological sites though usually as fragments since they were not usually discarded until broken.

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    This book is the source of information on figured flasks and contains by far the most comprehensive listing with illustrations and is the accepted classification system for figured flasks. Here the authors divide figured flasks into 9 distinct "Form Groups" and includes dating ranges for when that form group was first produced. The book also covers most other types of 18th and 19th century American bottles and is an almost mandatory reference for serious students of American made bottles of the 18th and 19th century.

    Because of the beauty - and possibly the intrinsic value - of figured flasks, many have been reproduced at various times during the 20th century.

    Some of these reproductions are very hard to discern from originals to the inexperienced eye. The bottles pictured in this section are all early to midth century originals. Decorative flasks The decorative group of flasks is a category of "pictorial" flasks made up of four primary types: The figured flask pictured to the left and the colorful group of five to the upper right is commonly referred to by collectors as a scroll flask, though in the early days of collecting and probably even now they were referred to as "violin" flasks.

    What 19th century glass makers called these is lost to history. This style of flask was introduced around and were extremely popular through the s and s. Popularity apparently waned by the beginning of the Civil War early s and it appears that very few if any were made after that time.

    Most scroll flasks were likely made by Midwestern glassmakers, though most do not have makers marks to allow for precise attribution. Scroll flasks were primarily made in half-pint, pint most common size by farand quart sizes, though smaller and larger examples are known, including a gallon size. Scroll flasks almost always have some type of pontil scar, i. The range of colors possible in these flasks is almost unlimited, though they were by most commonly made in shades of aquamarine - like the example above.

    Finishes found on these flasks included primarily the following: The aqua scroll flask pictured above is very typical in design and likely dates from the late s or s. Click on the following links for more images of this pint scroll flask from different views: To the right is pictured a very similar pint scroll flask GIX in an unusual yellow green color with a cracked-off and non-refired finish; click thumbnail image to enlarge.

    Click quart scroll flask to view a picture of a quart sized scroll flask with a double-ring finish.

    This quart scroll also has an iron pontil scar, is classified as GIX-1 or 2, and likely dates from the mid to late s. A colorful grouping of five scroll flasks dating from the late s to late s is also shown at the top of this section above.

    Another very popular style of early figured flask is referred to as the "sunburst" flask, which encompasses various types based on the molded design on the body. Sunburst flasks are among some of the oldest of the figured flasks dating as early as to and as late as the s for a few. Most are believed to have been primarily made by various New England glass works. Sunburst flasks were made in only pint and half-pint sizes. They all have pontil scars - either glass-tipped or blowpipe types - indicating early manufacture.

    Colors can vary somewhat widely, though the large majority are in shades of olive green and olive amber, various other true greens, shades of amber, and aqua. Finishes are typically straight sheared or cracked-off or subtle variations like the rolled, flare, or globular flare typically with with obvious re-firing; and occasionally with hard to classify variations of the double ring, mineral, or others.

    For more information on sunburst flasks check out the following external link: Click on the following links for more pictures of this flask: As an example of how a given type of bottle can be used or re-used for a non-type typical product, click on the following links: This shows an example of this same type sunburst flask that was used or more likely re-used for "SPTS. Spirits of camphor was historically used internally an expectorant and still is used externally muscle aches and pains though is now considered to be a more or less hazardous substance if ingested.

    It is definitely not a liquor though it has "spirits" in the name. The pint, clear green sunburst flask pictured to the right is an earlier product of same Keene, NH. These flasks are often called "two pounders" by collectors as they are almost decanter-like with heavy glass weighing between 2 and 3 pounds. Click the following links to view more pictures of this flask: Some of these flasks have an eagle design instead of the urn on the reverse, but are otherwise very similar.

    The symbols of the cornucopia and urn were easily recognized during the time as symbolic of the young country's U. Cornucopia flasks were made in only the pint and half-pint sizes. These flasks seem to all have pontil scars - typically either a glass-tipped or blowpipe pontil - reflecting their early manufacturing dates; iron pontils are unusual. Colors are once again variable but dominated by olive green, olive amber, other shades of amber and green, and aqua.

    Finishes are almost always a of the straight sheared or cracked-off varieties or subtle variations like the rolled, flare, or globular flare typically with with obvious re-firing.

    The pictured flask both sides shown - cornucopia side to above left; urn to right is a product of Coventry Glass Works, Coventry, CT. These flasks are very rare, very early s or early sunusual, and unlikely to be encountered.

    Thus they are not covered. Users can also find some information on these type flasks, including pictures, at the following link: These could also be considered as "historical" flasks by some Munsey Most Masonic flasks have some type of design on the reverse that features an American eagle.

    These types of flasks are some of the earlier of the figured flasks dating primarily between and the s though a few date as late as the Civil War. One of the later type Masonic flasks is covered in the calabash section. These earlier Masonic flasks were only made in pint and less frequently, half-pint sizes. Like most figured flasks, the Masonic flasks can be found in a wide range of colors though most were produced in different shades of aqua, amber, and green olive green, blue-green, olive amber.

    All of these earlier Masonic flasks are pontil scarred, usually of the glass-tipped or blowpipe type. Iron pontils are rare or possibly unknown empirical observations. Finishes are usually straight shearedcracked-off, or rolled with occasional double ring or other simple applied finishes. The above pictured blue-green Masonic flask has a stylized eagle embossed on the reverse and dates between and about It was made in a two-piece hinge mold, has vertically ribbed sides, and a glass-tipped pontil scar on the base.

    Click on the following links for various view images of this flask: It was also made at the same Keene glassworks as the previous flask, though a decade or more later.

    Click Masonic-eagle reverse to see the other side of this flask. Another shape type variation of Masonic-eagle flask - and a common flask shape during the s, s and s - is pictured to the right.

    Historical Flasks This grouping of flasks is quite varied as to embossing, design, and shape. The unifying theme of these flasks - and what differentiates these flasks from other groups - is their historical connection be it emblematic, symbolic, or human. The most popular image on figured flasks is not surprisingly the American eagle - often embossed on both sides of the flask.

    The diversity of different types of eagles is amazing, ranging from the bold and artistic eagles like shown to the right to stiff and simplistic eagles like shown at this link - Pike's Peak-eagle flask reverse view. In general, the more detailed and artistically pleasing eagles are on the earlier flasks s to s and the more simplistic ones on the later flasks s and s though there are exceptions of course Munsey Eagles or other symbols of the U.

    Because of this shapes, sizes, finishes, mold types, and manufacturing processes vary as widely as the period allows with no particular diagnostic features unique to the group like some of the other figured flask types. The flask pictured above is a "beaded edge" Washington-Eagle flask GI-2 that dates from the s or s and was likely made by an early Pennsylvania glass company.

    Click on the following links to view more images of this flask: The reverse of this flask features a bust of George Washington and is pictured below. Another variation of the American eagle were the quite artistic versions found on the flasks produced by several Connecticut glass factories. It classifies as GII, has a smooth cup-bottom mold conformation a very unusual mold type for the eraand a crudely applied double ring finish. These flasks were produced using both pontil rods pontil scarred as well as a snap-case tools smooth base.

    Yet another variation of the American eagle is found on an assortment of highly ornate flasks that may have been made by one of the Louisville, KY.

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    This pint flask similar examples also were produced in quart and half gallon sizes has a blowpipe pontil scar, was blown in a two-piece key mold, and is classified as GII The likeness of many people are emblazoned on the sides of figured flasks. However, none were as popular as George Washington with at least 72 flasks bearing his likeness. Flasks in this category are a mixed lot with little physical commonality except that they are flasks and made during the figured flask period of to or so.

    Colors, shapes, sizes, finishes, and other manufacturing methods vary as widely as the period allows. There are even a few late 19th century flasks that were produced for Presidential elections Grover Cleveland, William Jennings Bryan, William McKinley that are cataloged within this group.

    The flask pictured to the right is a Washington-Eagle flask GI-2 that was discussed above with links to more pictures of the item. Some of the most common flasks in this category are the Washington-Taylor series of flasks, which contains at least 37 different examples.
    Decennial Census [3] As of the census [4] ofthere were 2, people, households, and families residing in the city.

    The population density was 2, There were housing units at an average density of 1, The racial makeup of the city was Hispanic or Latino of any race were There were households out of which The average household size was 2.

    In the city, the population was spread out with The median age was 34 years. For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The majority rely on agriculture and mining for their income.

    History[ edit ] The area in which the township of Lovelock was to be established first came to prominence as a lush way station on the Humboldt Trail to California. According to an description of what were then called the Big Meadows, "This marsh for three miles is certainly the liveliest place that one could witness in a lifetime.

    There is some two hundred and fifty wagons here all the time. Trains going out and others coming in and taking their places is the constant order of the day. Cattle and mules by the hundreds are surrounding us, in grass to their knees, all discoursing sweet music with the grinding of their jaws. Although born in WalesLovelock was from a family of Wiltshire origin that is known to family historians as the Lyneham Line. The town's foundation came about with the building of the Southern Pacific Railroad through the area in August He also acted as the town's first postmaster and invested in hotels.

    In particular he was the first proprietor of the Big Meadows Hotel on Main Street, adjacent to the train station and what was eventually the Greyhound Bus depot. Bythe town of Lovelock had a school, churches and a business district along what was then called Railway Street—later renamed West Broadway.

    In August the weekly Lovelock Review was founded, becoming Lovelock Review-Miner in January and remaining under that name to the present day. Its famous round Court House was built at the end of Main Street, on the site of a school, which was then located elsewhere. While mining and agriculture acted as the commercial centre for the locality, the community thrived on the state speciality of gambling, with many casinos and three legalised brothelsalthough all of the latter are now closed.

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    Inold U. Route 40 through downtown was bypassed by Interstate 80and in the early s the rail depot closed, killing much of its prosperity. Since then it has promoted itself as a tourist attraction with its historic buildings and special events. There have been several mining booms in the neighbouring mountains.

    These included intensive activity in the Rochester and Seven Troughs areas at the start of the 20th century and subsequent drilling with more advanced techniques later in Rochester. The Coeur Rochester mine began further open cast mining for silver and gold in[10] test drilling for gold continues at Relief Canyon, [11] and diatomite is dug at the Colado Mine.

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    Portuguese festival in May and what became the annual Frontier Days weekend in July. There are also hot air balloon races Lovers Aloft, inaugurated in February and the Lovelock Street Fever car show, begun in June It was destroyed by fire in and the tower was rebuilt without the original spire; in the church was badly damaged by another fire and was restored again. Marzen House Museum is another Victorian building, built in Not far away is the railroad depot dating from In it was presented to the town by the Union Pacific Railroad to be restored and moved to another lot for use as an eatery.

    This was registered as a historic building in Julie Nicoletta describes the circimstances: As a solution, DeLongchamps designed a round courthouse, patterning it after Thomas Jefferson's library at the University of Virginia campus. The circle-over-hexagon design includes a circular interior hallway and a round courtroom decorated with Corinthian pilasters.

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    A broad, sweeping concrete staircase leads to the main floor of the Beaux-Arts classical structure. Its entrance includes a pedimented portico supported by six Ionic columns. Doric pilasters separate the main story windows.

    Cream-colored brick and terracotta finish the exterior. A shallow dome crowns the roof and provides the courtroom with a dramatic, soaring ceiling.

    It is referenced on the debut album of the folk-rock band Center Divide, Lovelock to Winnemuccaa title drawn from the opening lines of the first song there, "Lovelock". Although at first a stopover in the town is made to sound like a doorway to hell, the mood changes at the end. The girls working there were teenagers and full of smiles and good cheer.

    It was very welcome after a trying day on the road. I'd say the girls' smiles were the special of the day because they really cheered us up. An ex-convict staying overnight at a Lovelock motel picks up a retarded woman and guiltily sees her and her sister off in their car the next morning. Leebron explains that the inspiration for the story 'comes from a brief encounter I had in New Orleans in and an overnight stay I made in Nevada four years later.

    I began writing a novel that contains "Lovelock" as a chapter in the spring of In the opening chapters, an orphaned Pony Express rider comes across Trent Lovelock and his family on Humboldt Flats in and is befriended by them.

    Louiswho was brought up on the small reservation for Lovelock Paiute Indians south of the town. The presence of the Indian Cemetery there is an abiding point of reference for him and a place to which he often returns, in person and more often, in memory.

    I'm at that place I grew up to leave. Alkali-crusted sand waves have drifted against my markers of blood.
    So suggests new research that tracked changes in two genes thought to help regulate brain growth, changes that appeared well after the rise of modern humansyears ago. That the defining feature of humans — our large brains — continued to evolve as recently as 5, years ago, and may be doing so today, promises to surprise the average person, if not biologists.

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    Lahn and colleagues examined two genes, named microcephalin and ASPM, that are connected to brain size. If those genes don't work, babies are born with severely small brains, called microcephaly. Using DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations, they identified a collection of variations in each gene that occurred with unusually high frequency.

    In fact, the variations were so common they couldn't be accidental mutations but instead were probably due to natural selection, where genetic changes that are favorable to a species quickly gain a foothold and begin to spread, the researchers report.

    Lahn offers an analogy: Medieval monks would copy manuscripts and each copy would inevitably contain errors — accidental mutations. Years later, a ruler declares one of those copies the definitive manuscript, and a rush is on to make many copies of that version — so whatever changes from the original are in this presumed important copy become widely disseminated.

    Scientists attempt to date genetic changes by tracing back to such spread, using a statistical model that assumes genes have a certain mutation rate over time. For the microcephalin gene, the variation arose about 37, years ago, about the time period when art, music and tool-making were emerging, Lahn said.

    For ASPM, the variation arose about 5, years ago, roughly correlating with the development of written language, spread of agriculture and development of cities, he said. Other scientists urge great caution in interpreting the research. That the genetic changes have anything to do with brain size or intelligence "is totally unproven and potentially dangerous territory to get into with such sketchy data," stressed Dr.

    Aside from not knowing what the gene variants actually do, no one knows how precise the model Lahn used to date them is, Collins added.

    Lahn's own calculations acknowledge that the microcephalin variant could have arisen anywhere from 14, to 60, years ago, and that the uncertainty about the ASPM variant ranged from to 14, years ago. Those criticisms are particularly important, Collins said, because Lahn's testing did find geographic differences in populations harboring the gene variants today.

    They were less common in sub-Saharan African populations, for example. That does not mean one population is smarter than another, Lahn and other scientists stressed, noting that numerous other genes are key to brain development. The work was funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The information contained in the AP News report may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the prior written authority of The Associated Press.

    Language tree rooted in Turkey Evolutionary ideas give farmers credit for Indo-European tongues. The finding hints that farmers in what is now Turkey drove the language boom - and not later Siberian horsemen, as some linguists reckon.

    Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson, of the University of Auckland in New Zealand use the rate at which words change to gauge the age of the tree's roots - just as biologists estimate a species' age from the rate of gene mutations.

    The differences between words, or DNA sequences, are a measure of how closely languages, or species, are related. Gray and Atkinson analysed 87 languages from Irish to Afghan. Rather than compare entire dictionaries, they used a list of words that are found in all cultures, such as 'I', 'hunt' and 'sky'.

    Words are better understood than grammar as a guide to language history; the same sentence structure can arise independently in different tongues. The resulting tree matches many existing ideas about language development. Spanish and Portuguese come out as sisters, for example - both are cousins to German, and Hindi is a more distant relation to all three. All other Indo-European languages split off from Hittite, the oldest recorded member of the group, between 8, and 10, years ago, the pair calculates 1.

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    Around this time, farming techniques began to spread out of Anatolia - now Turkey - across Europe and Asia, archaeological evidence shows. The farmers themselves may have moved, or natives may have adopted words along with agricultural technology. The conclusion will be controversial, as there is no consensus on where Indo-European languages came from. Some linguists believe that Kurgan horsemen carried them out of central Asia 6, years ago.

    It shows how ideas about language evolution can be tested, she says: There is lots of word-swapping within language groups. English took 'skirt' from the Vikings, for example, but 'shirt' is original.

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    Linguists must separate the shared from the swapped, as any error will affect later studies. The Kurgan might not be out of the picture entirely, says McMahon - they may have triggered a later wave of languages. Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin. Nature,-doi: Earlier that morning I had set out on a pilgrimage to the Exalted Throne of Yahweh where Adam's god dwelt. Within an hour the noise and chaos of Tabriz had been left far behind, as our four-wheel drive ascended out of the alpine valley of the Adji Chay onto the plateau of the Sahand massif, with imposing volcano at its heart.

    Now I found myself at the entrance to one of our world's most extraordinary places - the troglodyte village of Kandovan. Ambling down the cobbled street - only just wide enough to take a donkey and cart - I turned up a steep side alley, all the time stalked by a clutch of free-roaming chickens.

    The alley soon morphed into a roughly sculpted flight of steps which twisted and turned between huge canine teeth of lava. Each was a home - a dwelling from a bygone age with rickety wooden door and tiny mullioned windows. In this Dysneyesque landscape of cave-dwellers, I almost expected Pinocchio to appear around the next bend. Kandovan - 'The Honeycombe'.

    My long journey, starting in the research libraries of London University, had led me to the Mesopotamian flood plain and on up into the mountains of Kurdistan, finally to reach the place the Book of Genesis calls the Garden of Eden. There is no straightforward way to explain how an Egyptologist, used to working in the dry heat of the north African deserts, should end up traversing the Zagros mountains of western Iran in search of the earthly paradise. I had begun my studies in the Departments of Egyptology and Ancient History at University College, London, with a major interest in the complex chronology of Egyptian civilisation.

    My PhD work to radically revise that chronology had inevitably drawn me into the world of biblical history - so closely bound up with the land of the pharaohs. Years of research had led me to the conclusion that many of the stories in the Old Testament were based on real historical events: But why was I now delving into the Book of Genesis - that most mythological and hoary of the biblical texts? Surely it would have been better to leave well alone?

    But that is not my way. The simple fact is that ancient stories and legends have always fascinated me and the chance to uncover the historical reality behind the greatest legend of them all was just too tempting an opportunity to pass by. The 'Temptation Seal' on display in the British Museum.

    Back in I had been sent a short, privately published paper by amateur historian, Reginald Walkerwhich proposed a location for the Garden of Eden in north-western Iran. The main thrust of Walker's argument was that the four rivers of Eden, described in Chapter Two of Genesis, were to be found in that region. All four had their sources the Bible refers to them as 'heads' around the two great salt lakes of Van and Urmia. Ever since the time of the Jewish historian Josephus, a near contemporary of Christ, scholars have tried to use Genesis 2 to locate Eden.

    But the problem has always been the identification of the rivers themselves. The first two are no problem: The remaining two rivers, however, have always been a mystery. Clearly, in order to locate Eden precisely, we need to find the sources of all four - and that's where Walker's research comes in. By checking the writings of the Islamic geographers who accompanied the Arabic invasion of Persia in the 8th century, I was able to confirm that this was indeed the case.

    Moreover, even as late as the last century, Victorian atlases and encyclopaedias were still naming the river as the Gaihun-Aras. The Gaihun is therefore the missing biblical Gihon. The fourth river - the Pishon - was more difficult to find. Walker suggested that this Hebrew West Semitic name derived from the old Iranian Uizhun, where the Iranian vowel 'U' had been converted into the Semitic labial consonant 'P'.

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    Thus we have Uizhun to Pizhun to Pishon. Strange as it may seem, such switches do occur between the two language groups. For instance, one archaeological site in Iran is known by its Arabic West Semitic name of Pisdeli whereas its ancient Iranian name was Uishteri. The river Uizhun the modern Qezel Uzun - thus identified as the biblical Pishon - flows down from the mountains of Kurdistan and empties into the southern basin of the Caspian Sea.

    The four rivers of Eden. Bringing all this together we find that the sources of all four rivers originate in the highland area which Alexander the Great knew as Armenia and we know today as eastern Turkey and western Iran. A crucial line in the epic describes the envoy descending from the last of the seven mountain passes the Sumerians called them 'gates' and crossing a broad plain before arriving at the city of Aratta with its red-painted city wall.

    The envoy, journeying to Aratta, covered his feet with the dust of the road and stirred up the pebbles of the mountains. So, combining Walker's discovery of the four rivers together with the Sumerian location of Eden, it seemed as though the whereabouts of the lost Eden and its fabled garden was near to being resolved.

    I decided to set out for the ancient city of Susa burial place of Daniel of the lions' den in the south-western flood plain of Iran Iraq was off bounds for obvious reasons from where I determined to retrace the Sumerian envoy's route to paradise. Following the ancient track through the seven 'gates', I eventually reached the Miyandoab plain to the south of Lake Urmia. The journey had taken four days by car but would have taken the envoy the best part of four months by donkey.

    The edin remains today one of the lushest regions of the Middle East: This, I am sure, was the original heart of Eden which, over time, became a much wider area, including both the salt lakes and the Garden of Eden itself. The Bible describes the latter as being 'east in Eden' - in other words to the east of but still within the wider territory of Eden.

    My driver and I continued eastwards, between the south-eastern shore of Lake Urmia and the towering volcanic peak of Mount Sahand. An hour's drive along the highway brought us into a long west to east valley, the slopes of which were terraced with 'every kind of tree' smothered in spring blossom God planted a garden in Eden, which is in the east, and there he put the man he had fashioned. From the soil, God caused to grow every kind of tree, enticing to look at and good to eat. The nearest mountain to the north glowed bright red in the low evening light - a pile of pure red ochre.

    At its foot sprawled the regional capital of Tabriz, squatting at the centre of the valley where Adam and Eve whoever they were once lived according to biblical tradition. The first thing which came to mind was paradise lost. Nothing of the earthly garden and its settlement could have survived beneath these bustling streets. But then, away from the city, I soon discovered that there was much that remains of Adam's Neolithic culture.

    Paradise Lost - the sprawling city of Tabriz. This was the region where Man first began to settle down to sedentary life; where he learnt to domesticate animals and plant his crops; and where he began to bury his dead in graves, the bones painted in red-ochre. Adam's name means the 'red-earth' man.

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