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  • 1. An abstract of the presentations to follow
  • For Guys: How To Write A Good Online Dating Profile
  • 0. Introduction and table of contents
  • For Guys: How To Write A Good Online Dating Profile
  • For Guys: How To Write A Good Online Dating Profile
  • For Guys: How To Write A Good Online Dating Profile
  • What Are the Different Types of Dating Abuse?
  • Is This Abuse?
  • For Guys: How To Write A Good Online Dating Profile
  • Quality Without Compromise

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    Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included.

    The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here - including the listed dating ranges - are noted. Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted. Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site.

    If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition.

    0. Introduction and table of contents

    As an alternative, one can do a search of this website. Figured Flasks Figured flasks is a generic name for the large class of liquor flasks primarily produced between and Due to their esthetic and decorative nature, these flasks were infrequently discarded unless broken so many survived to the present day.

    Figured flasks also include c alabash bottles example belowwhich are covered separately here because of their distinctive shape, and some flasks that fit the form description but are just embossed with lettering, i.

    Unlike most other types of liquor bottles which are generally more common without embossing, figured flasks are by definition embossed since the embossed motifs and molded designs are what defines them as figured flasks, though many shapes are also unique to this group e. Unembossed flasks with shapes similar to some of the later s primarily figured flasks are considered generically in the "Flask not considered figured " category.

    The figured flasks described here represent a small cross-section of the hundreds of different types made during their heyday.

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    These type items are occasionally found on historic archaeological sites though usually as fragments since they were not usually discarded until broken. This book is the source of information on figured flasks and contains by far the most comprehensive listing with illustrations and is the accepted classification system for figured flasks.

    Here the authors divide figured flasks into 9 distinct "Form Groups" and includes dating ranges for when that form group was first produced. The book also covers most other types of 18th and 19th century American bottles and is an almost mandatory reference for serious students of American made bottles of the 18th and 19th century.

    Because of the beauty - and possibly the intrinsic value - of figured flasks, many have been reproduced at various times during the 20th century. Some of these reproductions are very hard to discern from originals to the inexperienced eye. The bottles pictured in this section are all early to midth century originals. Decorative flasks The decorative group of flasks is a category of "pictorial" flasks made up of four primary types: The figured flask pictured to the left and the colorful group of five to the upper right is commonly referred to by collectors as a scroll flask, though in the early days of collecting and probably even now they were referred to as "violin" flasks.

    What 19th century glass makers called these is lost to history. This style of flask was introduced around and were extremely popular through the s and s. Popularity apparently waned by the beginning of the Civil War early s and it appears that very few if any were made after that time. Most scroll flasks were likely made by Midwestern glassmakers, though most do not have makers marks to allow for precise attribution. Scroll flasks were primarily made in half-pint, pint most common size by farand quart sizes, though smaller and larger examples are known, including a gallon size.

    Scroll flasks almost always have some type of pontil scar, i. The range of colors possible in these flasks is almost unlimited, though they were by most commonly made in shades of aquamarine - like the example above. Finishes found on these flasks included primarily the following: The aqua scroll flask pictured above is very typical in design and likely dates from the late s or s. Click on the following links for more images of this pint scroll flask from different views: To the right is pictured a very similar pint scroll flask GIX in an unusual yellow green color with a cracked-off and non-refired finish; click thumbnail image to enlarge.

    Click quart scroll flask to view a picture of a quart sized scroll flask with a double-ring finish. This quart scroll also has an iron pontil scar, is classified as GIX-1 or 2, and likely dates from the mid to late s. A colorful grouping of five scroll flasks dating from the late s to late s is also shown at the top of this section above. Another very popular style of early figured flask is referred to as the "sunburst" flask, which encompasses various types based on the molded design on the body.

    Sunburst flasks are among some of the oldest of the figured flasks dating as early as to and as late as the s for a few. Most are believed to have been primarily made by various New England glass works. Sunburst flasks were made in only pint and half-pint sizes. They all have pontil scars - either glass-tipped or blowpipe types - indicating early manufacture. Colors can vary somewhat widely, though the large majority are in shades of olive green and olive amber, various other true greens, shades of amber, and aqua.

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    Finishes are typically straight sheared or cracked-off or subtle variations like the rolled, flare, or globular flare typically with with obvious re-firing; and occasionally with hard to classify variations of the double ring, mineral, or others. For more information on sunburst flasks check out the following external link: Click on the following links for more pictures of this flask: As an example of how a given type of bottle can be used or re-used for a non-type typical product, click on the following links: This shows an example of this same type sunburst flask that was used or more likely re-used for "SPTS.

    Spirits of camphor was historically used internally an expectorant and still is used externally muscle aches and pains though is now considered to be a more or less hazardous substance if ingested. It is definitely not a liquor though it has "spirits" in the name. The pint, clear green sunburst flask pictured to the right is an earlier product of same Keene, NH. These flasks are often called "two pounders" by collectors as they are almost decanter-like with heavy glass weighing between 2 and 3 pounds.

    Click the following links to view more pictures of this flask: Some of these flasks have an eagle design instead of the urn on the reverse, but are otherwise very similar. The symbols of the cornucopia and urn were easily recognized during the time as symbolic of the young country's U.

    Types of Abuse –

    Cornucopia flasks were made in only the pint and half-pint sizes. These flasks seem to all have pontil scars - typically either a glass-tipped or blowpipe pontil - reflecting their early manufacturing dates; iron pontils are unusual. Colors are once again variable but dominated by olive green, olive amber, other shades of amber and green, and aqua. Finishes are almost always a of the straight sheared or cracked-off varieties or subtle variations like the rolled, flare, or globular flare typically with with obvious re-firing.

    The pictured flask both sides shown - cornucopia side to above left; urn to right is a product of Coventry Glass Works, Coventry, CT. These flasks are very rare, very early s or early sunusual, and unlikely to be encountered. Thus they are not covered. Users can also find some information on these type flasks, including pictures, at the following link: These could also be considered as "historical" flasks by some Munsey Most Masonic flasks have some type of design on the reverse that features an American eagle.

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    These types of flasks are some of the earlier of the figured flasks dating primarily between and the s though a few date as late as the Civil War. One of the later type Masonic flasks is covered in the calabash section. These earlier Masonic flasks were only made in pint and less frequently, half-pint sizes.

    Like most figured flasks, the Masonic flasks can be found in a wide range of colors though most were produced in different shades of aqua, amber, and green olive green, blue-green, olive amber.

    All of these earlier Masonic flasks are pontil scarred, usually of the glass-tipped or blowpipe type. Iron pontils are rare or possibly unknown empirical observations. Finishes are usually straight shearedcracked-off, or rolled with occasional double ring or other simple applied finishes. The above pictured blue-green Masonic flask has a stylized eagle embossed on the reverse and dates between and about It was made in a two-piece hinge mold, has vertically ribbed sides, and a glass-tipped pontil scar on the base.

    Click on the following links for various view images of this flask: It was also made at the same Keene glassworks as the previous flask, though a decade or more later. Click Masonic-eagle reverse to see the other side of this flask. Another shape type variation of Masonic-eagle flask - and a common flask shape during the s, s and s - is pictured to the right. Historical Flasks This grouping of flasks is quite varied as to embossing, design, and shape.

    The unifying theme of these flasks - and what differentiates these flasks from other groups - is their historical connection be it emblematic, symbolic, or human. The most popular image on figured flasks is not surprisingly the American eagle - often embossed on both sides of the flask.

    The diversity of different types of eagles is amazing, ranging from the bold and artistic eagles like shown to the right to stiff and simplistic eagles like shown at this link - Pike's Peak-eagle flask reverse view.

    In general, the more detailed and artistically pleasing eagles are on the earlier flasks s to s and the more simplistic ones on the later flasks s and s though there are exceptions of course Munsey Eagles or other symbols of the U. Because of this shapes, sizes, finishes, mold types, and manufacturing processes vary as widely as the period allows with no particular diagnostic features unique to the group like some of the other figured flask types. The flask pictured above is a "beaded edge" Washington-Eagle flask GI-2 that dates from the s or s and was likely made by an early Pennsylvania glass company.

    Click on the following links to view more images of this flask: The reverse of this flask features a bust of George Washington and is pictured below. Another variation of the American eagle were the quite artistic versions found on the flasks produced by several Connecticut glass factories.

    It classifies as GII, has a smooth cup-bottom mold conformation a very unusual mold type for the eraand a crudely applied double ring finish. These flasks were produced using both pontil rods pontil scarred as well as a snap-case tools smooth base.

    Yet another variation of the American eagle is found on an assortment of highly ornate flasks that may have been made by one of the Louisville, KY. This pint flask similar examples also were produced in quart and half gallon sizes has a blowpipe pontil scar, was blown in a two-piece key mold, and is classified as GII The likeness of many people are emblazoned on the sides of figured flasks.

    However, none were as popular as George Washington with at least 72 flasks bearing his likeness. Flasks in this category are a mixed lot with little physical commonality except that they are flasks and made during the figured flask period of to or so.

    Colors, shapes, sizes, finishes, and other manufacturing methods vary as widely as the period allows.

    What Are the Different Types of Dating Abuse?

    There are even a few late 19th century flasks that were produced for Presidential elections Grover Cleveland, William Jennings Bryan, William McKinley that are cataloged within this group. The flask pictured to the right is a Washington-Eagle flask GI-2 that was discussed above with links to more pictures of the item.

    Some of the most common flasks in this category are the Washington-Taylor series of flasks, which contains at least 37 different examples.
    No distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long and short vowels, although such a distinction was certainly present phonologically in the spoken languages of the time.

    The term runes is used to distinguish these symbols from Latin and Greek letters. It is attested on a 6th-century Alamannic runestaff as runa and possibly as runo on the 4th-century Einang stone. The name comes from the Germanic root run- Gothic: Ogham is a Celtic script, similarly carved in the Norse manner.

    The root run- can also be found in the Baltic languagesmeaning "speech". In Lithuanianrunoti means both "to cut with a knife " and "to speak".

    Elder Futhark The runes developed centuries after the Old Italic alphabets from which they are probably historically derived. The debate on the development of the runic script concerns the question regarding which of the Italic alphabets should be taken as their point of origin and which, if any, signs should be considered original innovations added to the letters found in the Italic scripts. The historical context of the script's origin is the cultural contact between Germanic people, who often served as mercenaries in the Roman armyand the Italian peninsula during the Roman imperial period 1st century BC to 5th century AD.

    Giuliano and Larissa Bonfante suggest that runes derived from some North Italic alphabet, specifically Venetic: There are no horizontal strokes: This characteristic is also shared by other alphabets, such as the early form of the Latin alphabet used for the Duenos inscriptionbut it is not universal, especially among early runic inscriptions, which frequently have variant rune shapes, including horizontal strokes.

    Runic manuscripts that is written rather than carved runes, such as Codex Runicus also show horizontal strokes. The " West Germanic hypothesis" speculates on an introduction by West Germanic tribes. This hypothesis is based on claiming that the earliest inscriptions of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, found in bogs and graves around Jutland the Vimose inscriptionsexhibit word endings that, being interpreted by Scandinavian scholars to be Proto-Norseare considered unresolved and long having been the subject of discussion.

    Another theory presumes a Northwest Germanic unity preceding the emergence of Proto-Norse proper from roughly the 5th century. Makaev, who presumes a "special runic koine ", an early "literary Germanic" employed by the entire Late Common Germanic linguistic community after the separation of Gothic 2nd to 5th centurieswhile the spoken dialects may already have been more diverse.

    These inscriptions are generally in Elder Futharkbut the set of letter shapes and bindrunes employed is far from standardized. Theories of the existence of separate Gothic runes have been advanced, even identifying them as the original alphabet from which the Futhark were derived, but these have little support in archaeological findings mainly the spearhead of Kovelwith its right-to-left inscription, its T-shaped tiwazand its rectangular dagaz. If there ever were genuinely Gothic runes, they were soon replaced by the Gothic alphabet.

    The letters of the Gothic alphabet, however, as given by the Alcuin manuscript 9th centuryare obviously related to the names of the Futhark. The names are clearly Gothic, but it is impossible to say whether they are as old as the letters themselves. A handful of Elder Futhark inscriptions were found in Gothic territory, such as the 3rd- to 5th-century Ring of Pietroassa.

    In this stanza, Odin recounts a spell: Due to this, it is possible that the early runes were not used so much as a simple writing system, but rather as magical signs to be used for charms. Although some say the runes were used for divinationthere is no direct evidence to suggest they were ever used in this way.

    The name rune itself, taken to mean "secret, something hidden", seems to indicate that knowledge of the runes was originally considered esoteric, or restricted to an elite. Haidzruno runu, falahak haidera, ginnarunaz.

    Arageu haeramalausz uti az. I, master of the runes? Incessantly plagued by maleficence, doomed to insidious death is he who breaks this monument. There also are some inscriptions suggesting a medieval belief in the magical significance of runes, such as the Franks Casket AD panel. Much speculation and study has been produced on the potential meaning of these inscriptions.

    Rhyming groups appear on some early bracteates that also may be magical in purpose, such as salusalu and luwatuwa. Further, an inscription on the Gummarp Runestone — AD gives a cryptic inscription describing the use of three runic letters followed by the Elder Futhark f-rune written three times in succession.

    There are at least three sources on divination with rather vague descriptions that may, or may not, refer to runes: The first source, Tacitus's Germania, describes "signs" chosen in groups of three and cut from "a nut-bearing tree", although the runes do not seem to have been in use at the time of Tacitus' writings.

    One of these accounts is the description of how a renegade Swedish king, Anund Uppsalefirst brings a Danish fleet to Birkabut then changes his mind and asks the Danes to "draw lots". According to the story, this "drawing of lots" was quite informative, telling them that attacking Birka would bring bad luck and that they should attack a Slavic town instead. The lack of extensive knowledge on historical use of the runes has not stopped modern authors from extrapolating entire systems of divination from what few specifics exist, usually loosely based on the reconstructed names of the runes and additional outside influence.

    Medieval use[ edit ] Codex Runicusa vellum manuscript from approximately AD containing one of the oldest and best preserved texts of the Scanian Lawis written entirely in runes. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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    March Learn how and when to remove this template message As Proto-Germanic evolved into its later language groups, the words assigned to the runes and the sounds represented by the runes themselves began to diverge somewhat and each culture would create new runes, rename or rearrange its rune names slightly, or stop using obsolete runes completely, to accommodate these changes.

    Thus, the Anglo-Saxon futhorc has several runes peculiar to itself to represent diphthongs unique to or at least prevalent in the Anglo-Saxon dialect. Nevertheless, that the Younger Futhark has 16 runes, while the Elder Futhark has 24, is not fully explained by the some years of sound changes that had occurred in the North Germanic language group.

    For example, voiced and unvoiced consonants merged in script, and so did many vowels, while the number of vowels in the spoken language increased. Some later runic finds are on monuments runestoneswhich often contain solemn inscriptions about people who died or performed great deeds.

    For a long time it was presumed that this kind of grand inscription was the primary use of runes, and that their use was associated with a certain societal class of rune carvers.

    In the mids, however, approximately inscriptions, known as the Bryggen inscriptionswere found in Bergen. Following this find, it is nowadays commonly presumed that, at least in late use, Runic was a widespread and common writing system. Now in the collection of the British Museum In the later Middle Ages, runes also were used in the clog almanacs sometimes called Runic staff, Prim, or Scandinavian calendar of Sweden and Estonia.

    The authenticity of some monuments bearing Runic inscriptions found in Northern America is disputed; most of them have been dated to modern times. Runes in Eddic lore[ edit ] In Norse mythologythe runic alphabet is attested to a divine origin Old Norse: This is attested as early as on the Noleby Runestone from c.
    Secure Sockets Layer SSL is a Netscape protocol originally created in to exchange information securely between a web server and a browser where the underlying network was insecure.

    Since the demise of Netscape the SSL specifications will not be updated further. It is now officially a dead parrot and must not be used henceforth by order of the great and good and, in this case, the eminently sensible. When a secure connection is initially established it will, depending on the implementation, negotiate support of the particular protocol from the set SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1.

    All references to SSL below are retained for reasons of common usage the term is still more frequently used than TLS but should be simultaneously translated by the reader into TLS.

    The next level of description requires some familiarity with the terms MAC Message Authentication CodeSecure hashes, symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic algorithms. For those not comfortable with these terms they are covered in in this Encryption survival guide. You may want to lie down for a while in a darkened room after reading this stuff. The term TLS 1. The first set of messages are called the Handshake Protocol after which both client and server enter the Record or Data Protocol.

    The exchange of messages during the Handshake Protocol achieves the following objectives: The client offers a list - the server makes the choice from the offered list. The server sends authentication information most normally in the form of wrapped in an X. Establishes a session ID so that the session can be restarted if required. Negotiates a Cipher Suite consisting of a key-exchange algorithm together with a bulk-data encryption algorithm type and a MAC type used in the subsequent data session Record Protocol.

    Asymmetric algorithms are very expensive in resources CPU and therefore symmetric ciphers are used for subsequent bulk-data encryption using the Record Protocol. The key-exchange algorithm is used to transfer information from which session key s can be independently computed for the symmetric bulk-data cipher. This a simplified overview and additional data may be exchanged, for instance, the client can be requested to send an authenticating X. In Figure 2 messages in black are sent in clear text unencrypted ; messages in blue are sent using the public key supplied by the server using the key-exchange cipher and require the server to have access to the corresponding private key; messages in green are sent using the negotiated bulk-data cipher and are protected by the negotiated MAC.

    Types of Abuse –

    Given the speed of modern networks data compression is rarely, if ever, used and is typically set to the value NULL not used in the negotiated cipher suite. If you prefer the 'stuff happens' level skip this section to retain your sanity.

    The client also sends a 32 octet random value a noncewhich is used later to compute the symmetric keys, and a session ID which will be 0 if no previous session exists or non-zero if the client thinks a previous session exists.

    Each cipher suite is comprised of a key-exchange algorithm, a bulk cipher algorithm and a MAC Hash algorithm. The cipher suite used by both client and server on initial connection is: A typical cipher suite is: Now that info has probably made your day. If you crave nauseating detail about cipher suites and their manipulation then this page, written for OpenLDAP, might provide it.

    You have been warned. The word EXPORT appears in some valid cipher suite descriptions and refers to export strength ciphers, that is, some ciphers are only permitted in certain countries see US Dept. Extensions, defined in RFC and primarily used in wireless networks, may be invoked in a backward compatible manner at ClientHello. RFC significantly increases the number of TLS extensions including many which may be used on conventional non-wireless networks.

    The server is free to silently ignore any extensions it does not understand. The response to the Certificate Status request obtained typically by using OCSP is sent in a CertificateStatus message immediately after the Certificate message see below.

    Apparently, Certificate Status status-request has proved wildly popular for wireless devices? This feature supported by most modern browsers allows a web server supporting multiple web sites, for example, Apache's VirtualHost capability, to send a site specific certificate in its Certificate 3 message. Configuration of Apache 2 to support SNI. RFC defines a new cipher suite: Older servers will ignore such messages and the connection will be made as normal with a reduced protocol version.

    RFC defines an extension which can be used to pad with zeros the size of the ClientHello to ameliorate the effect of buggy TLS implementations we are not making this stuff up. RFC defines a new X.

    For Guys: How To Write A Good Online Dating Profile


    If the server does not provide the referenced TLS extensions the client can assume a potential security violation and abandon the session. Clearly the client decision must be postponed until after the Certificate phase of the TLS handshake. The server sends a 32 octet random value a nonce which is used later to compute the symmetric keys.

    If the ClientHello offered a previous session ID known to the server then a reduced Handshake is negotiated. If the client offered a session ID that was not recognized by the server, the server returns a new session ID and a full Handshake results.

    The server sends its X. The objective of this message is that the client will obtain from a trusted source the public key of the server which it can use to send an encrypted message. While it is normal to only send a single certificate in this message what is called a certificate bundle more than one certificate in a single PEM file can be sent.

    RFC defines a vestigal certificate format that encapsulates the raw public key in a wrapper consisting of the SubjectPublicKeyInfo necessary to describe the public key properties.

    Indicates the end of the server part of this dialogue sequence and invites the Client to continue the protocol sequence. The server may request a client certificate at this point to complete mutual authentication. This client certificate exchange sequence has been omitted from the protocol sequence description since it is not commonly used and unnecessarily complicates the description.

    The client computes what is called a pre-master key using the server and client random numbers or nonces. It encrypts this key using the public key of the server obtained from the supplied X.

    Quality Without Compromise

    Only the server can decrypt this message using its private key. Both sides independently compute a master key from the pre-master key using an algorithm defined in the standard. Any required session key is derived from this master key. To eliminate this possibility RFC redefines the method of computing the master secret originally defined in RFC by replacing the server and client random numbers with a hash of the complete session from ClientHello to ClientKeyExchange.

    If either the client or server cannot support the new RFC algorithm then clearly either may abort the session or continue with the legacy RFC algorithm. ChangeCipherSpec - Client 6: This message indicates that all subsequent traffic from the client will be encrypted using the selected negotiated bulk encryption protocol and will contain the negotiated MAC. Nominally this message is always encrypted with the current cipher which, in the connection's initial state, is NULL and hence the message is shown in the diagram as being sent in clear.

    While this message is shown in the protocol diagram as a being sent separately it is frequently concatenated with the Client Key Exchange message. Finished - Client 7: This message contains all the messages sent and received during the Handshake protocol, but excluding the Finished message, and is encrypted using the negotiated bulk encryption protocol and hashed using the negotiated MAC. If the server can decrypt and verify this message containing all previous messagesusing its independently computed session key, the dialog was successful.

    If not the session is terminated at this point by the server sending an Alert message with some perhaps vague error message. RFC specifies that under certain conditions the client may start to send data immediately following sending of this message in order to reduce connection latency. A subsequent failure in processing the following server messages will result in an aborted connection but without data compromise.

    ChangeCipherSpec - Server 8: This message indicates that all subsequent traffic from the server will be encrypted using the negotiated bulk encryption protocol and contain the negotiated MAC. Nominally this message is encrypted with the current cipher, which in the connection's initial state is NULL and hence the message is shown in the diagram as being sent in clear.

    Implicity receipt of this message also tells the client that the server received and was able to process the client's Finished message. Finished - Server 9: This message contains all the messages sent and received during the Handshake protocol, but excluding the Finished message, and is encrypted using the negotiated bulk encryption protocol and includes the negotiated MAC.

    If the client can decrypt this message using its independently computed key the dialog was successful. If not he client would terminate the connection with and Alert message and a suitable perhaps vague error code. Subsequent messages between the server and client are encrypted using the negotiated bulk encryption protocol and include the negotiated MAC. The random values sent by the client and server and the subsequent pre-master secret all include a two octet time value to avoid replay attacks and consequentially, as in all cryptographic systems, both client and server should be using a synchronized time source such as NTP.

    When either the client or the server terminates a connection with an Alert message the error code supplied may not be precise and rarely helpful to avoid providing information to the other party which could be used to refine an attack.

    The use of X. All the technical architecture related to X. Specifically it uses the term Distinguished Name DN to refer to attributes within a certificate. These refer to standards defined by RSA Laboratories.

    Observers and implementors have noted that the multiplicity of standards can lead to serious problems in implementation and interpretation. This set of implementation notes from Peter Gutmann is pretty detailed, big and really quite scary.

    The entity is defined in the subject attribute of the certificate or, increasingly, in the subjectAltName SAN. This trust process is described further. The private key associated with the public key of the user's X. CRLs are essentially an old-fashioned 'batch' process. They contain big ish lists of all the certificates that have been revoked. If the certificate being checked using its serial number is not in the CRL it is assumed to be still valid.

    CRLs have multiple problems: In short, it's not a very useful or efficient process. Most of the information in this section focuses on the use of X.

    CAs typically offer a number of certificate types. Finally, not all CAs are equal. Readers are cautioned that while most CAs are thoroughly professional and undertake periodic audits or are certified by national organizations not all are look for, and follow, attestation, certification and audit links on any CA website. Buyer beware caveat emptor is the watchword.

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